Tag Archive for: Mathematica

This is an overview of the many ways in which one can create graphs in Mathematica. It demonstrates the ubiquity of graphs and how Mathematica makes it easy to experiment with ideas. At the same time, various Mathematica symbols and techniques are presented which we will cover more in depth in later article.

Polyhedral surfaces have been around since antiquity although it wasn’t recognized until Euler that they are in fact closely related to graphs. Take for example the snub-cube



and unwrap its faces



The number of vertices can be found in two ways here, either using the VertexCount property of the PolyHedronData or through the VertexCount property of Graph. The results do not agree though




because the vertex count of the polyhedron is based on its 3D wrapping while the unwrapped graph duplicates some vertices.

Polyhedrons can be combined to give beautiful graphics



The vertices in this case are contained in two graphs, we can use the GraphUnion command to combine them and thus create a new graph. The letter g will be used in this text to denote a graph.



Turning this graph into a polyhedron is not possible (in a straightforward manner)but we can turn it into a 3d graph, which reveals that it’s almost a tree.



How far away from a tree? That’s something we can answer by looking at spanning trees. Although a spanning tree is not unique it still gives a good indication of how many edges (shortcuts) break the tree-like structure



A more numerical value can be obtained from the GraphDifference;



Once you have a graph there are many ways in which it can be turned into another graph. For example, a line graph of a given graph turns edges into vertices and vice versa;



Being a transformation, one can wonder whether there are graphs which remain invariant under this type of transformation. It’s rather easy to create a simple case, the triangle graph is indeed topologically invariant



and this is true for any cycle graph. Assuming that the symmetry of this graph is the key to invariance is misleading though



and similarly with k-ary trees




Another way to transform a graph into another one is by asking what it takes to turn the given graph into a complete one. Say, we take a random graph of 5 vertices and 7 edges


and take the graph complement



Graphs can be found everywhere in everyday life although it’s not always perceived as such. Millions of people traverse the London tube every day without realizing they do;


What is the longest trajectory across the London underground? One way to answer this question is by looking at the distance matrix



This gives a qualitative result and highlights a few regions with long distances. To find a qualitative answer we take the maximum



This corresponds to the so-called graph diameter, defined as the largest distance across the graph (using geodesic paths);



Of course, we want to know to which couple of stations this distance corresponds



which is a unique solution but can, of course, be traversed in two ways



So, let’s take the first one and see what the (shortest) path is connecting them


The explicit route is hence



To represent this in the graph we first simplify the London graph somewhat.



and then highlight the longest path



Graphs can be obtained from images through mathematical morphology. The following picture of a tree, for instance, can be turned into a tree-ish graph




This indeed looks very much like a tree, but looks can be misleading;



We can turn this into a genuine tree as follows



It’s actually not a tree but rather a forest, i.e. a collection of trees. This can be seen in various ways. If we apply a tree layout to the graph



we see that there are multiple components. This can be seen by using the ConnectedComponents and the ConnectedGraphQ methods as well


Is connected: False

The world of chemistry also offersa rich collection of graphs. For example, digitonin is a detergent



This molecular structure can be converted to a graph by fetching the edge collection



Mathematica has a rich collection of curated graphs and a fun way to explore a random sample is by means of



There are plenty of categorizations which one can focus on


CreatingGraphs_66.gif CreatingGraphs_67.gif CreatingGraphs_68.gif CreatingGraphs_69.gif CreatingGraphs_70.gif
CreatingGraphs_71.gif CreatingGraphs_72.gif CreatingGraphs_73.gif CreatingGraphs_74.gif CreatingGraphs_75.gif

The polyhedral graphs can be sampled in a similar way


CreatingGraphs_77.gif CreatingGraphs_78.gif CreatingGraphs_79.gif CreatingGraphs_80.gif
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Markov processes can be modelled in Mathematica and their graph representation help understand visually the transitions



This graphical representation does not show the graph as a weighted graph however, but this can be easily done



There are endless ways to manipulate and customize graphs in Mathematica. Here is an example of a hidden feature, the so-called edge bundling which bundles edges in order to achieve greater clarity.



There are plenty of graph types in the software industry which are not directly available but which can be obtained with a bit of effort. Below is an example of a standard flowchart with the essential ingredient being the EdgeShapeFunction which we’ll discuss later on as well.


This results in a more traditional type of graph representation. While pretty much anything and everything is possible one should note though that Mathematica is more geared towards graph computations rather than graph representations.


Mathematica is ideal for rapid prototyping of ideas and combining the multitude of functions. Here is an example of rectangular edges across different types of graph layouts


CreatingGraphs_98.gif CreatingGraphs_99.gif CreatingGraphs_100.gif CreatingGraphs_101.gif CreatingGraphs_102.gif
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Graph layout is a world on its own and is closely related to graph analysis. Mathematica will by default automatically pick out the most appropriate layout for a given graph as well as the so-called graph packing. Graph packings are about how components of a graph are organized on top of the individual layout. Here is an overview of the possible component arrangements


CreatingGraphs_109.gif CreatingGraphs_110.gif CreatingGraphs_111.gif
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You can define your own layout of course and specify explicit coordinates. For example, here is an explicit grid layout



Elements of graphs can be highlighted as we showed above with London underground. Vertices belonging in some way together can also be visualized by means of the CommunityGraphPlot which in a way is a combination of graphs and sets.



Yet another way to look at graphs is by considering the edges as segments of polygons.



Conversely, converting a checkered polygon to a graph is possible as well. Taking one of the polygons above we can convert it to a graphics of arrows



and take the coordinates which we then apply to a cycle graph;




Floorplans and maze-like environment are really graphs and it’s easy to generate random mazes like so



Mathematica contains a rich collection of so-called parametric graphs which have diverse types of regularities.


CreatingGraphs_129.gif CreatingGraphs_130.gif CreatingGraphs_131.gif CreatingGraphs_132.gif CreatingGraphs_133.gif
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Besides all sorts of graphs with explicit names and the parametric graphs (like k-ary tree) there is a whole arsenal of ways to generate random graphs. There are many reasons why one would want to produce random graphs and it’s in fact an acadmic branch on its own. Among other:
– experiment with existing or invent new graph layout algorithms (graph embeddings)
– research collective behaviors or properties of graphs with certain constraints (statistical physics based on graphs)
– model epidemic and viral algorithms
– test out graph theoretic concepts (centrality and other measures)

Here is a sample of random graphs based on various distributions:


CreatingGraphs_145.gif CreatingGraphs_146.gif CreatingGraphs_147.gif
CreatingGraphs_148.gif CreatingGraphs_149.gif CreatingGraphs_150.gif

Sparse arrays are an important ingredient in graph drawing, most matrices deduced from a graph are sparse. Conversely, you can create graphs from sparse arrays. For example, the following ladder diagram is based on a banded sparse array



An interesting way to construct graphs is by looking at relationships between sets of objects. For example, the inclusion or subset operation gives a partially ordered set which can be made even more clear by looking at the so-called transitive reduction of the graph. The transitive reduction removes edges which can be deduced from the transitive closure.


CreatingGraphs_154.gif CreatingGraphs_155.gif

Finally, sound can also be converted to a graph by looking at the line graph outputted by default when loading a wave;



It produces beautiful floral patterns and is a good representation of the complexity of the data. For a comparison, here is the graph corresponding to the alt-sax



Text and Mathematica code


This is an overview of the discrete differential calculus on graphs with an emphasis on the usage of Mathematica to perform related calculations. While the calculus is more generic and can also be applied to generic simplices, it’s more complex to program since it involves concepts which are not directly deduced from the algebraic properties of graphs (e.g. orientation). We, hence, focus mainly on graphs and the usage of matrix methods.

Much of what is presented here is described in many ways and within various application domains. It’s probably new however to see it presented within Mathematica. This offers tremendous possibilities due to the calculational power and in the ways the various knowledge domains of Mathematica can be combined.

Creating graphs

Mathematica can easily output a wide spectrum of different graph types and offers lots of ways to customize and manipulate graphs. We will use in what follows a collection of graphs to highlight the discrete calculus and the examples below describe the various commands and notations.

Note: each of the gothic symbols L, T, G… can be executed and really are just aliases to Mathematica functions.

Example: a small, random directed graph.

The function R[ ] generates a random Bernoulli graph with five vertices and probability 0.5.
You can change the default to produce something larger, e.g. R[12,0.3] produces a random graph with 12 vertices and probability of 0.3 for the edges;

Example: the cycle graph.

The gothic O will denote the cycle graph of ten vertices.

Example: the grid graph

The gothic G will denote the grid graph of five colums and three rows.

Example: the k-ary tree

The gothic T will denote the 3-ary tree of three levels.


Example: the linear graph of ten vertices.

The gothic L will denote the linear chain of ten vertices (9 edges).

Example: the complete graph

The gothic K will denote the complete graph over five vertices.


The notation DiscreteCalculus_8.gif or A[g] will denote incidence matrix of the graph g. Note that our incidence matrix is the edge-vertex matrix and not the vertex-edge matrix of Mathematica (i.e. the transposed).

Example: visualizing the incidence matrix


Note that the incidence matrix is a sparse array and that if you wish to display it in a standard list you need to convert it using Normal or using MatrixForm for a standard matrix.

It’s important to note that the incidence matrix is not rectangular in general and acts more as a conversion operator from vertices to edges.

The notation DiscreteCalculus_10.gif or W[g] will denote the adjacency matrix of the graph g. The Mathematica implementation takes the directed edges into account but for our purposes the adjacency matrix needs to be symmetric.

Example: the adjacency matrix of a tree

Row[{MatrixForm[W[T]], ArrayPlot[W[T], ImagePadding→12]}]


The vertex degrees casted in a diagonal matrix will be denoted by DiscreteCalculus_12.gifor D[g].

Example: the vertex degree matrix of a random graph

ArrayPlot[D[T],ColorRules->{1→Green,0→White,3→Orange, 4→Red}]


The face-edge matrix B representing the incidence of edges with a face depends on the orientation one applies by hand on a face, i.e. a graph or simplex does not have a natural orientation induced by the edges. We assign an orientation to the T, G,… graphs based on the right-hand rule with the thumb point outwards the plane in which the graph resides.

Example: B face-edge matrix

The DiscreteCalculus_14.gifgraph has one face
and, hence, has a B matrix of one row

B = {{0,-1,1,-1,1,0}}

Note that the order of the B entries corresponds to the order of the edges defining the graph, which in this case is

{12,23, 24,35,45,56}

As a comparison, the DiscreteCalculus_16.gifis similar but has face edges all pointing in the opposite direction as the face orientation
leading to

B = {{0,-1,-1,-1,-1,0}}

Chains and cochains

A 0-chain is vector defined on the vertices of the graph and 1-chain is a vector defined on the edges of the graph. Note that this is not the same as a function on the graph elements, it’s simply an algebra over the graph elements. A function on the vertices is a 0-cochain and is also a vector but it exists in a different space.

We will use

    • σ1, σ2… to denote the 0-chains or vertices
• τ1, τ2… to denote the 1-chains or edges
• τ to denote the whole edge space (the list of all edges)
• σ to denote the whole vertex space (the list of vertices)

For a given graph the makeChainBasis can be used to create the 0 and 1-chain basis elements. One can define higher order elments, like faces (2-chain) and volumes (3-chain) and we will use ocassionally the symbol φ1, φ2… to denote faces.

Example: chains

The 0-chains in the graph DiscreteCalculus_18.gifare generated (as a vector space) by the six basis elements {σ1, σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5, σ6} and the 1-chains by {τ1, τ2, τ3, τ4, τ5, τ6}.

The 0-chain

η = 2 σ1 + 4 σ3 + σ5

corresponds to


in the order of the vertices that the graph was defined.

The 1-chain

ζ = 3 τ3 + 7 τ6

corresponds to


in the order of the edges that the graph was defined. The linear combination of all vertices σ and the linear combination of all edges τ can be considered as the whole vertex space and edge space respectively.

Dual to the notion of chain are cochains which can be considered as discrete functions on the discrete elements. A 0-cochain is essentially a function on the vertices, a 1-cochain a function on the edges and so on.
We will use
• s1, s2… to denote the 0-cochains or vertex function
• t1, t2… to denote the 1-cochains or edge functions

To generate a symbolic (vertex and/or edge) function on a given graph the makeVertexFunction and makeEdgeFunction can be used.

Example: creating symbolic graph functions

A vertex function f has five entries


and can be created by means of


Similarly, an edge function has four components


create using


Inner product, metric and volume

The inner product defines a pairing between chains and cochains. Conversely, one can look at cochains as duals of the chains. On the zero-th level this means that if η and ζ are chains

< ζ | η > = DiscreteCalculus_23.gifR or C

The inner product of the basis elements is defined through a metric

DiscreteCalculus_24.gif = DiscreteCalculus_25.gif.

On the edge level a similar inner product can be defined with a different metric. So, contrary to the continuous case, one can have a hierarchy of metrics and inner products (of different dimensions since the vertex count is not necessarily the same as the edge count).
We will denote by G the metric without specifying the level, the context making clear whether we deal with the metric on a vertex, edge or face level.

The metric can both be seen as a coupling factor in the inner product and as a weight on the vertices and edges. Especially on the edge level it’s interesting that the metric can be taken from the weight of the weighted graph. This means that the metric is usually taken as to be a diagonal matrix with orthogonality; only edge-edge and vertex-vertex coupling are considered.

Much like the continuous calculus you can then go back and forth between chains and cochains of the same level, i.e. for a given edge τ we define the cochain c

c = G τ

and conversely, with a cochain f we associate a chain π

π = DiscreteCalculus_26.gif

This implies that that cochains have an inner product defined as

< f | g > = DiscreteCalculus_27.gif DiscreteCalculus_28.gif

Example: metric and weighted graphs

Taking a random graph with random weights assigned to the edges we can form the edge-metric by means of the edgeMetric function, giving for instance the following

g = RandomGraph[{7,7},graphDesign,EdgeWeight→RandomInteger[100,7]]

The vertex metric can be created similarly with the vertexMetric function.

Because the metric is diagonal and the duality of chains and cochains we can define the inner product of a cochain f with a chain π as follows

< f | π > = DiscreteCalculus_31.gif

which can also be seen as the inner product of two vectors since the chain and cochain spaces are finite.

Finally, the volume of a chain is defined as

Vol = G. 1

which corresponds in the continuous case to the Hodge dual of one.  So, if an integraion of a 1-cochain over an unweighted graph corresponds to


while a weighted graphs yields


Note that if the metric is normalized to Tr(G) = 1 this amounts to the expectation value of f if the metric is seen as a probabilistic distribution.

Example: edge and vertex volume of a random graph

g = RandomGraph[{7,7},graphDesign,VertexWeight→RandomInteger[100,7]];

would give something like


Integral, boundary and differential operators

We define the integral of a cochain c over a chain η to be equal to the inner product of c and so that the integral of a cochain c over a chain η is

DiscreteCalculus_34.gif = < c | η >

The boundary operator is defined as

DiscreteCalculus_35.gif = DiscreteCalculus_36.gif for a 1-chain DiscreteCalculus_37.gif
DiscreteCalculus_38.gif =  DiscreteCalculus_39.gif for a 1-chain DiscreteCalculus_40.gif

which are in fact the only way that the respective matrices can be used to transform one type of vector to another (of a different dimension in general).

Example: the boundary operator

Let g be the DiscreteCalculus_41.gif graph and recall that the B matrix for this graph is

while the A matrix is


Because there is only one face it means that the boundary of this face is the same as B considered as a vector rather than a matrix. This indeed corresponds to the four edges with a sign indicating whether it’s traversed in the same or opposite direction.

Taking a 1-chain η = τ1+τ2+τ4 = {1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0} the boundary is

∂η = {-1,0,0,0,1,0}

which corresponds to σ5 – σ1 and are indeed the endpoints of the line (sub)graph between vertices 1 and 5.

If we take the integral of a vertex function over the boundary of the full linear chain L we get the difference between the endpoints;


This is in essence the fundamental theorem of calculus in the graph context. A consequence of this is that any loop integral is zero. Of course, the general case is not always comparable to the coninuous calculus.

Example: integral over the grid graph


Since the cycle graph has no boundary, it’s obvious that the integral always gives zero. The discrete calculus is more general than just graphs and embraces simplices in general. If we would includes 2-chains or higher order elements we could show that in general the boundary of a boundary is zero. Mathematica does not have a simple function to output higher order boundary operators (like the IncidenceMatrix) and it would also require the concept of orientation.

The coboundary (derivative) d of a cochain is defined as the transpose of the boundary operator

DiscreteCalculus_46.gif = DiscreteCalculus_47.gif for a 1-chain DiscreteCalculus_48.gif
DiscreteCalculus_49.gif =  DiscreteCalculus_50.gif for a 1-chain DiscreteCalculus_51.gif

which is again the only way one can, in fact, turn a vector from one space into another taking the underlying topology of the graph into account.

From a strict mathematical point of view the coboundary operator would be introduced in analogy to the continuous case:

< ∂σ | f > = < σ | df >

which is obviously true in this case since the respective matrices are transpose of each other.

Example: integral of a differential over L

Taking the linear L this leads to the usual difference

df = {-f1+f2,-f2+f3,-f3+f4,-f4+f5,-f5+f6,-f6+f7,-f7+f8,-f8+f9,f10-f9}

and taking the integral of the linear chain gives

DiscreteCalculus_52.gif = -f1+f10

So, the integral over the linear chain of the differential of the function f is the difference between the endpoints, as should be.

Of course, this is by construction true for any graph and not just the linear chain. So, we have Stoke’s theorem for the discrete calculus


for arbitrary graphs. The extension to higher order chains and cochains is easily done theoretically but more difficult to implement in Mathematica, as said earlier, due to the need for orientations on a simplex or chain.

The differential of the 0-chains is not always a basis of the 1-chains, as is the case in the continuous calculus. For example, the DiscreteCalculus_54.gifgraph has dσ1 + dσ2 + dσ3 = 0.This is also apparent from the fact that the incidence matrix as a rank one eigenspace. It can be easily shown that the egenspace has rank (m-n+1) with m edges, n vertices. So in this case we have effectively a cycle (when disgarding the direction of the edges).

The boundary and coboundary operators are nilpotent as should be

DiscreteCalculus_55.gif and DiscreteCalculus_56.gif

corresponding to


Div, Grad and Laplacian

The gradient of a scalar (0-cochain) u is defined as

∇ u ⇔ A u

which again is the only meaningful way in which one vector space element can be transformed to another. Also note that this corresponds to the differential du which is identical in the continuous context.The divergence of a vector (1-cochain) v is similarly defined as

∇.v ⇔ DiscreteCalculus_58.gif

Taking the divergence of a gradient leads to the Laplacian and is hence equal to

Δ ⇔ DiscreteCalculus_59.gif

Example: diffusion on the triangle graph

The discrete diffusion equation on a graph with discrete time can be written as

u(t+1) = u(t) – α Δu(t)

where α acts as a diffusing coefficient from a vertex to its adjacent vertices. This can be taken as the edge weights or a global constant. If we take for example the following random initial state on the triangle graph


we get an equillibrium state after an initial oscillatory transition


but much depends on the initial state and the diffusion coefficient used.

It can be shown that the Laplacian satisfies

Δ = DW

and hence that a stable state means that (

DiscreteCalculus_62.gif = DiscreteCalculus_63.gif
meaning that the value at a vertex is the average of the values of its neighbors.

Non-commutative differential algebra

Diifferential structures on discrete sets are never far off from non-commutative algebras and intriguing relationships with stochastics, KdV and other equations. Contrary to the continuous settings one can have many differential structures and topologies on a discrete ‘manifold’.

The vector space of 1-cochains can be turned into a bi-algebra by means of the multiplication ◦ of a 0-cochains f and g as

(f ◦ DiscreteCalculus_64.gif= DiscreteCalculus_65.gif= DiscreteCalculus_66.gif
( DiscreteCalculus_67.gif= DiscreteCalculus_68.gif= DiscreteCalculus_69.gif

which turns it into a non-commutative algebra with commutator

[dg, f] DiscreteCalculus_70.gif= DiscreteCalculus_71.gif

so that

∫ [f,df] = DiscreteCalculus_72.gif

which is often referred to as the energy of graph. In a more refined analysis one could proof that when one goes to a continuous limit the commutator vanishes and thus recover the de Rham calculus. Symbolically


Note that the Leibniz property and other differential properties are satisfied

d(fg) = df ◦ g + f ◦ dg = Af . g + f . Ag

due to the fact that the incidence matrix transfers a vertex function to a difference across the edges.


Discrete Calculus, J.Grady & J.Polimeni, Springer.

Discrete Exterior Calculus, Hanil Hirani, PhD Thesis.

• Discrete Differential Manifolds and Dynamics on Networks, A.Dimakis, F.Muller-Hoissen & F.Vanderseypen, hep-th/9408114.